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Just Like A Woman


Bob Dylan Solo Transcription
I recently posted a short lesson video covering the recorded intro and outro solos for Bob Dylan’s “Just Like A Woman.” The solos use an E harmonica, and are played in 1st position, with single notes which open periodically into doublestops.

Learn to Sing It
The solo melodies are based on the vocal melody for the verse and chorus, so I recommend learning to sing the vocal, since it will give you the outline for the solo and help you play it better by ear.

I can hear the protests – “C’mon! I just want to play harmonica!” – but in order to play the harmonica well, you have to develop your ear. And singing is the simplest way to train your ear. Plus, bands love it when players can sing backup, so it will make you more valuable as a bandmate. Learn to sing the songs you play, and you’ll find it so much easier to make the songs speak on the harp.

Visit my Tabs page for more free harmonica tabs.

Need a tutorial on how to read harmonica tab?

I Was Made To Love Her

Intro
For this post, I transcribed Stevie Wonder’s intro solo on “I Was Made To Love Her,” and adapted it to play on 10-hole diatonic harmonica. Stevie played the original solo on a C chromatic harmonica, and my goal was to try and play it as faithfully as possible on the blues harp.

Which Position and Which Key?
“I Was Made To Love Her” is in F major, but the solo contains bluesy minor sounds. What harp and what position would be good for bluesy minor sounds in F? The meat and potatoes blues solution would be 2nd position on a B-flat harp. All the notes are there, from hole 2-6, but it sounds an octave lower than the recording. And the higher octave, holes 6-9, requires an overblow on hole 6. Another option would be first position, up high on an F harp, from holes 7-10. This puts you in the right octave and all the notes are there, but only if you have strong blow bend skills. Most beginners play blow bends better on low harps, I find, and an F is the highest harp most people own. So in the end, I decided to use 3rd position on an E-flat harp, since it gave me the octave I wanted, with a minor sound, and only one really crucial bend.

Eb Harmonica
Many students tend to favor harps in the keys of G, A, Bb, C. In comparison, E-flat is kind of a high harp. But since most of the song is played in the middle octave without bends, the short, stiff reeds actually work for us, by making the harp more responsive and snappy.

Three Challenges
1) Play the 8 draw gently, or it will stall.
2) Go easy on the 5 draw bend, it’s only a quarter tone bend, and you don’t have much wiggle room.
3) The last note, -3″, will require practice. Three draw with a whole step bend can be tricky to dial in on your normal harp, and it will feel different on a higher-pitched Eb harp. But even if you NEVER get that last note, the other 99% of the tune should sound great immediately, as long as you have clear single notes and go easy on the 8 draw and 5 draw.

Spoon Bending – Improve Your 3 Draw Bend

Landing consistently on the 3 draw with a half-step bend is essential for cross harp blues, and it’s especially important if a song is in a minor key. As many have noted, you can play minor over a major song, but you can’t play major over a minor song.

For example, if a song is in E major and you grab your A harmonica to play cross harp, you can either play cross harp major (unbent 3 draw) or cross harp minor (bent 3 draw). Major will sound sweet, minor will sound bluesy.

However, if a song is in E minor, you can only play cross harp minor. Gotta land on the 3 draw with a half-step bend, every time. Playing an unbent 3 draw during a minor key song is the musical equivalent of chewing aluminum foil or scratching a chalkboard with your fingernails.

Ear Training

Building consistency with your 3 draw, half-step bend is a challenge in two parts. Sure, it’s about your bending technique, but it’s also about your ear. If you can’t hum, whistle, or sing the notes you want, you won’t be able to tell if you’re in tune or not. And staring at an electronic tuner is not an option when you’re in the middle of playing a song. You have to know the SOUND you’re aiming for.

This is why Adam Gussow’s “Spoonful” exercise is so perfectly on the money. It’s a dead-simple riff that everybody knows – and if you don’t know it, listen to my demo (or to Howlin’ Wolf or Cream) and after about 20 seconds you’ll have it in your head forever.

Spoonful

-2    -3'    
That spoon   

-2    -3'    
That spoon   

-2    -3'    -2
That spoon - ful

Spoonful, played on C harp
What To Do
Listen to the song, get it in your head, then sing, hum, or whistle that part to yourself. Now try to play it on your harp. The “spoon” part has got to be bent slightly, or it sounds too bright. It just doesn’t sound like the song unless you get that bend. Make it sound like you’re singing it, every time, and you’ll be on your way to a more consistent 3 draw half-step bend.

3rd Position on a G harp

Musical Crossword Puzzles
I’m kind of a music theory nut. I just like playing scales, and I enjoy the puzzle of figuring out what scale and what position works best on a particular song. Practicing scales has made me more confident when I’m improvising or trying to figure out a melody by ear.

Third Position
Popular songs are great examples to think about in terms of their scale position. Lately I’ve been calling 3rd position the “Carlos Santana position,” because the Dorian minor scale, easily played in 3rd position, is used on “Soul Sacrifice,” “Oye Como Va,” and other Santana classics. But third position isn’t just for psychedelic Latin blues-rock! It works over lots of minor-key songs.

Last Dance with Mary Jane
For example, the Tom Petty song “Last Dance with Mary Jane” has harp breaks in the key of A-minor. Based on my own listening and experimenting, I think his specific harp part is played on a G harp in 3rd position. Before we get to the specific riff, though, take a second and practice the scale:

-4  5  -5  6  -6  -7   7  -8
 A  B   C  D   E   F#  G   A

This pattern will give you a third position minor scale on any harmonica, but on a G harp, it gives you these specific note names in the key of A minor.

What About the Riff?
For the Mary Jane riff, aim for 6 draw and follow this pattern:

Draw
Blow-Draw-Blow
Draw-Blow-Draw

Move slightly left (lower in pitch) while following this breath pattern, and you’ll figure out the part by ear. Remember to check with the original so you know how it’s supposed to sound. Put on the recording, listen, then sing it back to yourself.

Learn the Scale!
I highly recommend learning the 3rd position minor scale, starting on 4 draw, ending on 8 draw, and playing it up and down, forward and backward. Why? Because it gives you a roadmap that will contain Mary Jane’s Last Dance and other songs played in 3rd position, so the next time you come across a minor-key song played in 3rd position, you’ll pick it up faster.

More 3rd Position Songs

With your G harmonica, you can jam along and even figure out melodies to the following songs:

Soul Sacrifice – Santana

Oye Como Va – Santana

Stairway to Heaven – Led Zeppelin

Moondance – Van Morrison

If you get deeply into these songs, you’ll notice that Stairway and Moondance have a few spots where 3rd position doesn’t fit. For those spots, maybe switch to a C harp and play 4th position. Or you could stay on the G harp and avoid the 7 draw at those moments.

Rolling in the Deep

I got an email from a student recently – his band plays “Rolling in the Deep,” by Adele, in the key of C minor. What key harp to use?

Cross Harp on an F

2nd position on an F harmonica gives you C minor, as long as you’re precise about the 3 draw. EVERY time you hit it, make sure you land on it pre-bent a half step. If you play the 3 draw unbent, it will sound major, which is a lousy sound over a minor key song. Here’s the scale:

-2 -3′ 4 -4 -5 6

Also, unless you’re used to playing high harps, an F harp might be a little stiff feeling, especially when that precise bend on -3′ is required ALL the time. A low F might be nicer. Finally, even though cross harp is the most comfortable and familiar position for most players, it wouldn’t be my first choice. Personally, I’d go for 3rd or 5th positions.

5th Position on an Ab

An Ab harp will give you C minor in 5th position. Fifth position is great if you’re already comfortable with the MAJOR cross harp sound and can bend the 3 draw a whole step. Here’s the 5th position minor pentatonic scale:

2 -2 -3″ -3 -4 5

Compare to the 2nd position major pentatonic:

-2 -3″ -3 -4 5 6

Same notes, but starting and ending one note lower than normal.

3rd Position on a Bb

A B-flat harp gives you C minor, when you play in 3rd position. This is probably the easiest, once you’re used to it, especially the middle octave:

-4 -5 6 -6 7 -8

No bends required! The opening breath pattern (Draw Draw Blow Draw) is similar to cross harp, just starting on 4 draw instead of 2 draw. And you can bend on 6 draw for a flat-5 sound.

4th position on an Eb

Similar to straight harp (1st position), but with the root on -3″. Since your low root is a bent note, you have to learn to land there with confidence. Work on landing directly on your bent notes, rather than sliding every time.

-3″ 4 -4 5 6 -6

In the low octave, you won’t have a flat-5th unless you can overblow on hole 4, so when you also consider that Eb is also kind of a high-pitched harp, it’s not my first choice for bluesy sounds. For simply playing dark, minor sounds along the Do-Re-Mi seven-note scale, though, I’m all for it! Here’s the 4th position minor scale (7 notes):

-3″ -3 4 -4 5 -5 6

6th Position on a Db Harp

Just to be complete, let’s not forget that a D-flat harp will give you C minor if you play in 6th position. And the minor pentatonic scale is super easy using the middle octave in 6th position, no bends required. That is, as long as you don’t mind having a flat-5th ALL the time. Here it is…

-3 -4 5 -5 -6 -7

If you step carefully, it’s a really easy, dark, bluesy pathway. However, it’s easy to make unintentional international sounds by accidentally playing 4 or 7 blow and getting a flat 2 sound. That move gives you a flamenco, Arabic, klezmer-type sound, which is probably not stylistically appropriate, even if you have a fearless, boundary-crossing musical outlook.

Actually, I suppose 5th position holds a similar peril around the 5 draw. So whichever way you go, remember to practice the scale, learn your pathway, and be patient with yourself. Try not to jump out of your skin and become totally mortified when you hit weird notes. Everybody plays weird notes sometimes. Find your way back to the root and minor 3rd and hang there as needed.

Conclusion

If I were playing C minor with a band on “Rolling in the Deep,” I’d probably use an Ab harmonica in 5th position, or a Bb harp in 3rd position. Since I overblow, both those positions give me the option of a 7-note diatonic mode or a 5-note pentatonic scale. But even if you don’t overblow yet, 5th position gives you minor pentatonic using only standard technique and 3rd position works without any bends at all!

Footnote

This advice assumes you’re playing fills and pure improv, not the song melody itself. The song melody uses the Aeolian minor, which is a minor with a flat 6th scale degree. It’s nice sometimes to follow the lead singer with the actual melody, so if you want that option, you gotta use 5th position in the low octave, or 4th position anywhere you like. 3rd position middle octave doesn’t have a flat-6th, unless you play an overblow on 6 blow, or transpose those phrases down an octave.

Surviving An E-Minor Emergency

E-Minor Emergency Scenario

Let’s say the band wants to jam in E-minor. Being a cross harp enthusiast, normally you’d grab an A harp and play 2nd position (cross harp) using the minor pentatonic scale (-2 -3′ 4 -4 -5 6). But when you reach into your bag, all you can find is a C harmonica! Is there no hope?! Must you sit down and give up all that free beer?!

Never fear – you can prepare for this emergency right now, by brushing up on the MAJOR version of the pentatonic scale. We’re going to use a hidden feature of the diatonic scale system to solve this problem…

2nd Position MAJOR Pentatonic Scale

-2 -3″ -3 -4 5 6

On a C harp, second position gives you G major. “Ok,” you say, “but how does playing in G major help me with an E-minor song?” Here’s the secret: because G major is the RELATIVE MAJOR of E minor, they’re basically the same scale. If you are comfortable playing 2nd position MAJOR pentatonic, you’re also covered for songs that use the relative MINOR.

Relative Major / Relative Minor

Relative major and relative minor have a special relationship, where the root note of the minor scale is a step and a half lower than the root note of the major scale. The note E is a step and a half lower than the note G. So if you’re playing the G MAJOR pentatonic scale, it’s exactly the same notes as the E MINOR pentatonic scale. This actually simplifies things for you: the same scale pattern will fit over two different song keys (G major and E minor).

5th Position

Anyhow, if you want to zero in even closer to the perfect Em position, try starting and finishing on E notes – that’s the 2 blow and the 5 blow on the C harp. Now the scale looks like this:

2 -2 -3″ -3 -4 5

You have just learned to play the 5th position MINOR pentatonic scale! It should feel pretty much exactly the same as the 2nd position MAJOR pentatonic scale, it just starts and finishes a little bit lower, and on blow notes. But the notes in the middle lay out the same.

Try it out – grab your C harp, practice the 5th position minor pentatonic scale a few times, then dial up some E minor songs and start jamming. Here are just a few:

E-Minor Song Examples

Come As You Are – Nirvana
Enter Sandman – Metallica
Got My Mojo Workin’ – Muddy Waters
Living on a Prayer – Bon Jovi
On the Road Again – Canned Heat
Riders on the Storm – The Doors
Wish You Were Here – Pink Floyd

Footnote

Please note, blues scholars, I’m not saying Alan Wilson or James Cotton played 5th position on “On the Road Again” or “Mojo Working.” Interestingly, since much of what they play has a minor feel, you CAN pick up many of their licks in 5th position on a C harp. However, if you want to REALLY get their parts the way they played them, you’ll need an A harp, played in 2nd position. And in the case of Blind Owl’s parts, you’ll need to tune up your 6 draw a half-step. At any rate, I included these two songs because they’re both awesome blues songs for jamming, and 5th position on a C harp gives you some cool sounds in the key of E minor.

Blindness and Learning Harmonica

Originally posted July 7, 2016

Rose_p03-300x187I’ve been working for the last couple of years with harmonica students who have limited vision. They needed large-format music, and the dots and lines were becoming too difficult to discern.

So we shifted gears to using a combination of large note names and audio demos. The audio is essential, since it allows students with a visual handicap to learn to sing or whistle the melodies by ear, and internalize the rhythm and phrasing. The note names provide a starting point, and they put it all together using their ear.

I recently combined the “audio + note names” format in several videos.

The Rose By the Door

My Favorite Things

What a Wonderful World

Not much good if you only read tab, but tab would work in this format also. Display it full screen, and you have essentially an auto-scrolling piece of music with an accompanying soundtrack.

These particular students have spent time studying large harmonica note charts and have learned the note layout of the chromatic or diatonic harp. They can visualize the chart and point out where the notes are located, and in a melody, show the moves left and right, in or out breath.

I think it’s helpful to develop this kind of spatial sense, to be able to gesture towards the notes on an imagined harmonica. Since the instrument is in your mouth and “invisible” when you’re playing it, as Howard Levy has pointed out, we all are functionally blind while playing.

My visually impaired students work on ear training and music theory on an ongoing basis, so that they can transition to learning music purely by ear if their vision becomes too limited to rely on. And in the meantime, they learn new pieces using a combination of ear and large note names.

As I mentioned, the videos above require a little more study upfront than reading tab, since you have to learn the note layout of your harp. Not a bad thing to learn, though. Use a C chromatic or diatonic for these examples, and enjoy!

To conclude, I want to share how inspired I am by these students, who push themselves to learn new skills in spite of their difficulties, for the love of playing music.

My New Book: “First 50 Songs”

Originally posted June 2016

first_50_songsLast summer and fall I arranged a bunch of popular songs for diatonic harmonica, and they’ve recently been published in Hal Leonard’s “First 50 Songs” series. You can get it here.

Styles Covered
The song list is wide-ranging, including melodies to blues, folk, rock, country, gospel, Motown, Broadway and jazz standards. Songs include: Ain’t No Sunshine * Blowin’ in the Wind * Edelweiss * Isn’t She Lovely * Jambalaya (On the Bayou) * Kum Ba Yah * Let It Be * Michael Row the Boat Ashore * My Girl * Puff the Magic Dragon * Ring of Fire * The Sound of Silence * Sweet Caroline * What a Wonderful World * You Are My Sunshine * and more.

Tab and Music
If you don’t read music, you can simply follow the harmonica tab. If you want to practice reading, I transposed all the songs so that the music notation is readable on a C diatonic harmonica. And of course, if you want to play the songs in a different key, you can always follow the tab, which will work with any key harmonica.

No Bends Required
Nearly all the songs are playable with basic single-note technique. You can play most of the fifty songs without bending a note! For an extra challenge, I included bends on maybe three of the arrangements, but most of the tunes lay really nicely in the middle octave or higher.

Straight Harp, Cross Harp, and Beyond
Most of the tunes are major key in first position (straight harp), a few are in second position (cross harp) and require bluesy bends, and a handful are minor key and play smoothly in third or fourth position.

I’m particularly happy to have included the minor key tunes, because they add variety – minor key tunes are darker and moodier, and again, I arranged them so they’d be playable by beginners with single notes, no bends required.

By the way, you don’t have to know all this position stuff in order to play the songs and enjoy the book, but you might notice that some songs sound bright and happy, some songs have a bluesier feel, and some songs are darker and more mysterious sounding.

Short and Long Songs
There are short tunes here which fit on one page, perfect for when you want to flip to a new song and just try it out without investing too much time. There are other tunes which stretch over several pages if you’re up for a longer story.

My Life With Songbooks
When I started playing music as a kid, I loved browsing through anthology songbooks like this at home. I couldn’t play every song, but I picked through and tried out bits here and there. When I found a song I was familiar with, playing the notes felt like running into an old friend. I enjoyed figuring out what all the notation meant, and gradually learned a lot about music, along with the specific songs.

Conclusion
There was a lot of work involved in choosing the songs in this collection, and even more in notating and arranging them. It feels like a real accomplishment to have it out there now! Go check it out here.

Melodies on a Low D

Originally posted Feb 2016

low_d-300x225I play Celtic music on the diatonic harmonica, and have noticed that my standard high D harp, when played in the middle octave, holes 4-7, sounds an octave higher than the fiddle and fits into the mix similarly to a tin whistle. It’s a nice sound to blend, but it can get a little shrill, especially by itself.

I usually mellow this out by aiming for the lower octave, holes 1-4 on a high D, but it requires a lot of bending. Life is much easier if you simply play holes 4-7, but it can be hard on the ears over the course of a long session.

A few years ago, the intractable choice between constant, rapid bending and high, shrill sounds led me to explore alternate tunings, especially Paddy Richter and spiral turning, which allow you to play in the low octave without bending.

After awhile, however, I returned to standard tuning for all my music, and resolved to improve my bending skills, accepting that I’ll have to move a little slower if I want to play cleanly in the low octave.

Enter the low D.

The low D harmonica gives you easy melodies without bending from holes 4-7, in the same octave as a fiddle.

It’s not a perfect solution – the tradeoff being that the longer reeds take a little longer to start swinging when you breathe across them. It seems the high D will always be a more responsive instrument for quick playing.

However, a low D works well for fiddle tunes at relaxed tempos, and does even better on waltzes and less note-intensive songs.

Plus, you sound more in tune if you’re not required to bend every other note! Yes, we all should aspire to bend in tune, all the time, at any speed.

While we work on that lifetime project, a low D harmonica can provide a bit of relief for overworked note-benders, and their bandmates’ ears.

As a concluding footnote, low tuned harps are available in pretty much every key, starting at low F# and going down to low low F, and they work in lots of styles of music, not just Celtic, both as melody and rhythm instruments. For melodies, you’ll want to focus on holes 4 and up, since draw bends on holes 1-3 become more difficult the lower you go. However, improved tone on all harps is there to be gained for those brave few who take the time to develop the throat relaxation and breath support required for bending on low low harps.

Overblows, Chromatic & Alternate Tunings

Originally posted Dec 2014

Do you want to play in multiple keys on one harp? Or to play slightly jazzier melodies? Or play classical and world music? Here are some options…

Overblow Diatonic Harmonica
3 full octaves, fully chromatic, requires specialized bending technique, 12 patterns to learn. $50 if you customize it yourself, $200+ for technician to customize.

Chromatic Harmonica
3 full octaves, fully chromatic, no bends required. 12 patterns to learn. $120 and up for standard 12-hole models.

Half-Valved Diatonic
3 full octaves, fully chromatic, requires specialized bending technique. 12 patterns to learn. Around $50.

Triple-Reed Diatonic
3 full octaves, fully chromatic, standard bending technique. 12 patterns to learn. Basic model $120, more if customized.

Diminished Tuning
2.5 octaves on a ten-hole model, 3 octaves on 12-hole model. Fully chromatic, standard half-step draw bends. Only 3 patterns to learn. Around $50 from Seydel’s custom tuning page.

Augmented Tuning
3 octaves on ten-hole model, fully chromatic, standard half-step and whole-step draw bends. Only 4 patterns to learn. Around $50 from Seydel’s custom tuning page.

Newton Fourkey Tuning
2.5 octaves on ten-hole model, 3 octaves on 12-hole model. Fully chromatic with only 2 draw bends required. 12 patterns to learn. Around $50 from Seydel’s custom tuning page.

Those are the basic stats! Now, let’s take a closer look at how each of these options works…

Overblow Harmonica
It’s a standard diatonic, with gaps set fairly tight, slots embossed for airtightness, and reeds adjusted for better response. Fully chromatic once you learn to blow and draw bend reliably. Overblows and overdraws are an extension of the basic draw/blow bends, just performed on the opposite end of the harp. Whenever bending is a big part of your style, you have to work on playing in tune and on articulating your low-end notes so it’s not a big slide-y mess down there. Bending and overblowing are your two big technical projects, along with the basic customizing skills so you can set harps up for better response. Plus, learning the note layout, and internalizing the music theory to know how to use those notes.

Chromatic Harmonica
Get one! I call it “the sane person’s harmonica,” because it plays three octaves easily in a single key AND it has all the chromatic notes built in. Those chromatic notes are accessible without bending, simply by pushing the slide button, they have a consistent tone, and they’re reliable and in-tune, unlike the bent notes which I and other (insane?) diatonic players rely upon. The big projects here are single notes, learning the note layout, and internalizing the music theory to know how to use those notes. Even if you’re a die-hard diatonic person like me, you’ll learn deep lessons about the fundamentals of music by playing in different keys on a single chromatic harmonica.

Half-Valved Diatonic
These are standard diatonic harps with valves over half the reed slots. Unlike fully-valved harps, you retain the standard double-reed bends AND you get a whole set of new single-reed bends. Those single-reed bends take some getting used to, but they add a new dimension of expressiveness to standard playing, and they can be used for chromatic accidentals. Also, the valves have the effect of evening out the response and volume of your blow and draw notes.

Triple-Reed Harmonicas
We’re talking here about the Suzuki SUB30 and products offered by X-Reed Harmonicas and a few other customizers. A triple-reed harmonica is a diatonic, 10-hole harp with an extra set of reeds that allows normal bends on every hole, blow or draw. These bends are interactive, double-reed bends, unlike the half-valved single-reed bends, so they sound and feel like traditional bends. Most folks do a bit of modification (or pay someone else to) in order to take full advantage, but it’s less work than customizing a harp for overblows.

Diminished Tuning
A diatonic harmonica in Diminished tuning has a consistent blow-draw pattern. The draw is always a whole step higher than the blow, all the way up the harp. This means you can achieve every chromatic note with simple, half-step draw bends. Because of the tuning, every scale you play will require bends. But if you’re good at draw bends, it’s surprisingly easy to pick up a Dimi harp and start playing anything, in any key, by ear. Also, because of the symmetry of the tuning, you only have to learn 3 patterns in order to play in every key. Compare that to the 12 patterns you have to learn in standard tuning! On the other hand, what we gain in easy chromaticity, we lose in range: a ten-hole dimi harp only covers a little more than two octaves. Thus, dedicated dimi players sometimes opt for 12-hole diatonic models, to get the full three-octave range found on a standard harp.

Augmented Tuning
Similar idea to Diminished Tuning, but with a step and a half between the blow and draw. This means you can play two different bent notes in between the blow and draw notes, just like you do on hole 2 of a standard tuned harmonica. With all this bending, intonation and articulation will be the focus of much of your practicing. But if you LOVE to bend notes, it can be a wonderfully expressive tuning. Again, the symmetry of the tuning simplifies things: instead of 12 different patterns for fully chromatic playing, there are only 4 patterns. Also, with a step and a half between the blow and draw, there’s no loss of range. With Augmented Tuning, a ten-hole diatonic plays three octaves fully chromatically, using only draw bends.

Newton Fourkey Tuning
Fourkey tuning allows you to play in four different keys without bent notes, and fully chromatically with only two draw bends total. The blow notes give you a pentatonic scale, and the draw notes give you a different pentatonic scale. This means that for those keys, if you just want pentatonic sounds, you just blow across the harp, or draw across the harp, like a panpipe. All together, to play in all 12 keys, you have to learn 12 patterns. Range is again limited to slightly more than 2 octaves, so some players opt for longer diatonic models to get a few more notes.

Conclusion
If you want to play a lot of different keys on a single instrument, you’ll probably want to weigh the pros and cons of each of these options, and possibly get a few of them and give them a fair try. Each approach has things it does well and things that are difficult. In all cases, ear training and music theory are essential. The upside to all that study is that ear training and music theory are applicable to any musical project, whether it’s learning a different style of harmonica or another instrument entirely.