Christmas Carols

‘Twas the night before Christmas, and I thought, “Hey, let’s remind folks about the Christmas carols posted under the letter ‘C’ on the Tabs page!”

Go play some carols: TABS

When you get there, scroll down to the letter “C” to find the Christmas songs.

Have fun, and Merry Christmas!

Fall Teaching & Two New Tabs

Fall Teaching, Full Swing

The school year has started for me here in New Hampshire, and along with my regular schedule of private lessons, I also lead middle school classes, organizing groups of 12-15 children to play and sing folk and pop songs using a variety of instruments. Which is to say, busy times!

Two New Folk Songs

However, I had a couple of American traditional songs on my mind during the last week, and took some time this morning to write out music for them and post them to the “Tabs” page.

“Red River Valley” is a cowboy ballad that I’ve written up in three forms: low and high octave first position and low octave second position. The three arrangements require progressively more skill: no bends, then one bend, then two bent notes.

“Skip To My Lou” was mentioned recently on a harmonica newsgroup, as a song Joe Fillisko teaches to beginner classes, so I took the hint and made my own arrangement. Sure enough, it plays great! No bent notes, and it’s a two-chord song, so it would work well as an intermediate tongue-blocking exercise to practice self-accompaniment using the 1 and 5 chords in first position.

Enjoy the tunes, and stay safe during hurricane season here in North America!


Coffee Shop Jam – June 24, 2018

I’m so proud of all the student performers this past weekend! It was a great return for the Coffee Shop Jam, this past Sunday June 24, 2018 at Local Burger in Keene, NH.

The Coffee Shop Jam is an informal performance opportunity I organize for my students, and this time around, we had 12 student performers who played guitar and ukulele. I would have loved to heard some harmonica, but student summer plans conflicted with the date. Next time!

During the show, some students performed totally solo, some played duets with me. At the end, we played a couple of big group songs.

The Coffee Shop Jam gives students an exciting (and scary) goal to work toward, and based on everybody’s feedback, a blast was had by all.

The next event isn’t scheduled yet, but I’m aiming to do it again in the fall, possible in October. Keep practicing, everybody!

Here’s the song list from last Sunday:

Crazy Train
Closing Day (original)
CM, guitar

Blitzkrieg Bop
Folsom Prison Blues
CT, ukulele

You’ve Got to Hide Your Love Away
WI & TD, guitar

Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da
AP, ukulele

Take Me to the Water (original)
Tell Me The Future (original)
NT & TD, guitar

Make It With You
JM & TD, guitar

Aloha ‘Oe
Coal Miner’s Daughter
Take Me Home, O Hawaii (original)
SH & TD, ukulele

Dear Prudence
JS & TD, guitar

Marry Me
Little Talks
Safe & Sound
OS & TD, guitar

Message in a Bottle
Greasy Coat
KB & TD, guitar

LK & TD, guitar

Johnny B. Goode
Everybody, guitar & ukulele

Diminished Tuning

I recently got a diminished-tuned diatonic harmonica from Seydel, using their custom tuning service, and it’s really fun and logical.

The Bad News

“Wait, this harmonica doesn’t work!” If you just blow and draw, nothing sounds good. In Diminished Tuning, you have to be conscious of your scale pattern, and you’ll have to play lots of half-step bends. Also, a ten hole harp doesn’t quite cover three octaves in Diminished Tuning, so you either have to live with reduced range, or get a 12-hole model.

The Good News

In Diminished Tuning, for each scale and lick, there are only 3 breath patterns, and the only bends required are small, half-step draw bends. This approach will cover you for all 12 keys. If you’re a minimalist and only want to carry one blues harp, Diminished Tuning is extremely attractive. Especially if you love playing melodies and improv that don’t fit easily on a Richter-Tuned harp.

Moveable Shapes

The three patterns are based on the location of the tonic note: there’s one pattern that starts on the blow, one pattern that starts on the draw, and one pattern that starts on the draw bend. Playing by ear is easy, just find the tonic note and ask yourself, “Is this a blow, a draw, or a draw bend?” then play the pattern that matches.

Here are some examples, starting at Hole 1, but which can be moved to any other hole with the same relationships.

Major Pentatonic Scale

Blow Position

Draw Note |X|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
Draw Bend |_|X|X|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
Blow Note |X|_|_|X|X|_|_|_|_|_|

Draw Bend Position

Draw Note |_|X|X|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
Draw Bend |X|_|_|X|X|_|_|_|_|_|
Blow Note |_|X|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|

Draw Position

Draw Note |X|_|_|X|X|_|_|_|_|_|
Draw Bend |_|X|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
Blow Note |_|_|X|X|_|_|_|_|_|_|

Note Layout

Here are the notes, if you started with a C on 1 blow. Notice that every blow and draw are a whole step apart, with a half-step bend available in between. Simply by playing blow, draw-bend, draw, you get a full chromatic scale.

Draw Note  D   F   Ab   B    D   F    Ab   B    D    F   
Draw Bend  Db  E   G    Bb   Db  E    G    Bb   Db   E   
Blow Note  C   Eb  Gb   A    C   Eb   Gb   A    C    Eb 
Hole #     1   2   3    4    5   6    7    8    9    10

Is This The End of Overblows?

Rest assured, I’m not abandoning standard Richter tuning and the overblow approach to chromaticity. Mainly because I’m used to it, but also because I like the deeper bends on holes 2, 3 and 10, I like the full three octave range on 10 holes, and I like the direct connection to the playing of great players of the past. Plus, standard tuning plays in a single primary key MUCH more easily than diminished tuning does.

But I really like the logic and ease of play of diminished tuning, especially for covering all keys and scale types on a single 10-hole blues harp. Yes, practice is required to get good intonation on the half-step draw bends, and the interval relationships from hole to hole are new.

But even after just a week, I’m confident that I actually could play a whole pop-rock gig with just one diminished harp. I’d have to keep things simple, but I think I could do it. I mean, heck, it’s just three patterns. Find the tonic note, and go!

Where to Get One?

I retuned an old Hohner Blues Harp for my first experiments, then ordered one custom tuned from Seydel, using their Harp Configurator. It cost about $80 and took about three weeks to ship from Germany. Another option would be to reach out to a domestic harmonica technician near you and request a quote for retuning.

Moonwalk Leapfrog

Here’s a fun variation on the basic Leapfrog scale pattern – it’s a step backwards, then a leapfrog forward.

Imagine a frog that moonwalks backwards one place, then hops over the next frog.

For our example here, let’s use the 1st position major pentatonic scale, played on a C harmonica, in the middle octave to minimize bends.

Major Pentatonic Scale

C  D  E  G  A  C
4 -4  5  6 -6  7


C  A  G  E  D  C
7 -6  6  5 -4  4

Going up, this should sound kind of like the opening riff from “My Girl,” by The Temptations.

Moonwalk Leapfrog Pattern

First we go up…

 D  C      E  D
-4  4      5 -4

 G  E      A  G
 6  5     -6  6

 C  A      D  C
 7 -6     -8  7

…then we come back down.

 A  C     G  A
-6  7     6 -6

 E  G     D  E
 5  6    -4  5

 C  D     A  C
 4 -4    -3" 4

Extra High, Extra Low Notes

Notice that because of the leapfrog approach, we end up shooting past the C on both ends, and grabbing an extra note on the outside edges of our octave. Going up, that means a high D on the 8 draw and coming down, that means a low A on the 3 draw, whole step bend.

That low A is the only bend required when you play this pattern in the middle octave. Play it if you can, and if you don’t have that bend yet, focus on playing the rest of this pattern fluidly.

Other Positions

A good next step with the Moonwalk Leapfrog pattern would be to try it with the second position major pentatonic scale, starting at 2 draw. Then try the 12th position major pentatonic scale, starting on 2 draw, whole step bend.

I like taking the same scale through different positions, because your ear will recognize the sound, even though you’re starting relatively higher or lower. That’s why we’re focusing here on one sound, the major pentatonic scale.

Minor Pentatonic

But of course, this will also work with the minor pentatonic scale. Build your cross harp blues skills by trying this on the second position minor pentatonic scale, and the relative minors of the positions previously discussed – 4th position minor pentatonic (same as 1st pos maj pent), 5th position minor pentatonic (same as 2nd pos maj pent) and 3rd position minor pentatonic (same as 12th pos maj pent).

Scale Degrees

Did I just totally make your head spin by talking about other positions and scale relationships? That’s ok. Take the first part of this article and get comfortable with it. As you move along, you might want to spend some time studying scales and patterns in terms of scale degrees, for example, in the key of C, the note C is 1, the note D is 2, the note E is 3, etc. This will help you move musical ideas (scales, melodies) more easily from one position to another.

Just Like A Woman

Bob Dylan Solo Transcription
I recently posted a short lesson video covering the recorded intro and outro solos for Bob Dylan’s “Just Like A Woman.” The solos use an E harmonica, and are played in 1st position, with single notes which open periodically into doublestops.

Learn to Sing It
The solo melodies are based on the vocal melody for the verse and chorus, so I recommend learning to sing the vocal, since it will give you the outline for the solo and help you play it better by ear.

I can hear the protests – “C’mon! I just want to play harmonica!” – but in order to play the harmonica well, you have to develop your ear. And singing is the simplest way to train your ear. Plus, bands love it when players can sing backup, so it will make you more valuable as a bandmate. Learn to sing the songs you play, and you’ll find it so much easier to make the songs speak on the harp.

Visit my Tabs page for more free harmonica tabs.

Need a tutorial on how to read harmonica tab?

I Was Made To Love Her

For this post, I transcribed Stevie Wonder’s intro solo on “I Was Made To Love Her,” and adapted it to play on 10-hole diatonic harmonica. Stevie played the original solo on a C chromatic harmonica, and my goal was to try and play it as faithfully as possible on the blues harp.

Which Position and Which Key?
“I Was Made To Love Her” is in F major, but the solo contains bluesy minor sounds. What harp and what position would be good for bluesy minor sounds in F? The meat and potatoes blues solution would be 2nd position on a B-flat harp. All the notes are there, from hole 2-6, but it sounds an octave lower than the recording. And the higher octave, holes 6-9, requires an overblow on hole 6. Another option would be first position, up high on an F harp, from holes 7-10. This puts you in the right octave and all the notes are there, but only if you have strong blow bend skills. Most beginners play blow bends better on low harps, I find, and an F is the highest harp most people own. So in the end, I decided to use 3rd position on an E-flat harp, since it gave me the octave I wanted, with a minor sound, and only one really crucial bend.

Eb Harmonica
Many students tend to favor harps in the keys of G, A, Bb, C. In comparison, E-flat is kind of a high harp. But since most of the song is played in the middle octave without bends, the short, stiff reeds actually work for us, by making the harp more responsive and snappy.

Three Challenges
1) Play the 8 draw gently, or it will stall.
2) Go easy on the 5 draw bend, it’s only a quarter tone bend, and you don’t have much wiggle room.
3) The last note, -3″, will require practice. Three draw with a whole step bend can be tricky to dial in on your normal harp, and it will feel different on a higher-pitched Eb harp. But even if you NEVER get that last note, the other 99% of the tune should sound great immediately, as long as you have clear single notes and go easy on the 8 draw and 5 draw.

Spoon Bending – Improve Your 3 Draw Bend

Landing consistently on the 3 draw with a half-step bend is essential for cross harp blues, and it’s especially important if a song is in a minor key. As many have noted, you can play minor over a major song, but you can’t play major over a minor song.

For example, if a song is in E major and you grab your A harmonica to play cross harp, you can either play cross harp major (unbent 3 draw) or cross harp minor (bent 3 draw). Major will sound sweet, minor will sound bluesy.

However, if a song is in E minor, you can only play cross harp minor. Gotta land on the 3 draw with a half-step bend, every time. Playing an unbent 3 draw during a minor key song is the musical equivalent of chewing aluminum foil or scratching a chalkboard with your fingernails.

Ear Training

Building consistency with your 3 draw, half-step bend is a challenge in two parts. Sure, it’s about your bending technique, but it’s also about your ear. If you can’t hum, whistle, or sing the notes you want, you won’t be able to tell if you’re in tune or not. And staring at an electronic tuner is not an option when you’re in the middle of playing a song. You have to know the SOUND you’re aiming for.

This is why Adam Gussow’s “Spoonful” exercise is so perfectly on the money. It’s a dead-simple riff that everybody knows – and if you don’t know it, listen to my demo (or to Howlin’ Wolf or Cream) and after about 20 seconds you’ll have it in your head forever.


-2    -3'    
That spoon   

-2    -3'    
That spoon   

-2    -3'    -2
That spoon - ful

Spoonful, played on C harp
What To Do
Listen to the song, get it in your head, then sing, hum, or whistle that part to yourself. Now try to play it on your harp. The “spoon” part has got to be bent slightly, or it sounds too bright. It just doesn’t sound like the song unless you get that bend. Make it sound like you’re singing it, every time, and you’ll be on your way to a more consistent 3 draw half-step bend.

3rd Position on a G harp

Musical Crossword Puzzles
I’m kind of a music theory nut. I just like playing scales, and I enjoy the puzzle of figuring out what scale and what position works best on a particular song. Practicing scales has made me more confident when I’m improvising or trying to figure out a melody by ear.

Third Position
Popular songs are great examples to think about in terms of their scale position. Lately I’ve been calling 3rd position the “Carlos Santana position,” because the Dorian minor scale, easily played in 3rd position, is used on “Soul Sacrifice,” “Oye Como Va,” and other Santana classics. But third position isn’t just for psychedelic Latin blues-rock! It works over lots of minor-key songs.

Last Dance with Mary Jane
For example, the Tom Petty song “Last Dance with Mary Jane” has harp breaks in the key of A-minor. Based on my own listening and experimenting, I think his specific harp part is played on a G harp in 3rd position. Before we get to the specific riff, though, take a second and practice the scale:

-4  5  -5  6  -6  -7   7  -8
 A  B   C  D   E   F#  G   A

This pattern will give you a third position minor scale on any harmonica, but on a G harp, it gives you these specific note names in the key of A minor.

What About the Riff?
For the Mary Jane riff, aim for 6 draw and follow this pattern:


Move slightly left (lower in pitch) while following this breath pattern, and you’ll figure out the part by ear. Remember to check with the original so you know how it’s supposed to sound. Put on the recording, listen, then sing it back to yourself.

Learn the Scale!
I highly recommend learning the 3rd position minor scale, starting on 4 draw, ending on 8 draw, and playing it up and down, forward and backward. Why? Because it gives you a roadmap that will contain Mary Jane’s Last Dance and other songs played in 3rd position, so the next time you come across a minor-key song played in 3rd position, you’ll pick it up faster.

More 3rd Position Songs

With your G harmonica, you can jam along and even figure out melodies to the following songs:

Soul Sacrifice – Santana

Oye Como Va – Santana

Stairway to Heaven – Led Zeppelin

Moondance – Van Morrison

If you get deeply into these songs, you’ll notice that Stairway and Moondance have a few spots where 3rd position doesn’t fit. For those spots, maybe switch to a C harp and play 4th position. Or you could stay on the G harp and avoid the 7 draw at those moments.

Rolling in the Deep

I got an email from a student recently – his band plays “Rolling in the Deep,” by Adele, in the key of C minor. What key harp to use?

Cross Harp on an F

2nd position on an F harmonica gives you C minor, as long as you’re precise about the 3 draw. EVERY time you hit it, make sure you land on it pre-bent a half step. If you play the 3 draw unbent, it will sound major, which is a lousy sound over a minor key song. Here’s the scale:

-2 -3′ 4 -4 -5 6

Also, unless you’re used to playing high harps, an F harp might be a little stiff feeling, especially when that precise bend on -3′ is required ALL the time. A low F might be nicer. Finally, even though cross harp is the most comfortable and familiar position for most players, it wouldn’t be my first choice. Personally, I’d go for 3rd or 5th positions.

5th Position on an Ab

An Ab harp will give you C minor in 5th position. Fifth position is great if you’re already comfortable with the MAJOR cross harp sound and can bend the 3 draw a whole step. Here’s the 5th position minor pentatonic scale:

2 -2 -3″ -3 -4 5

Compare to the 2nd position major pentatonic:

-2 -3″ -3 -4 5 6

Same notes, but starting and ending one note lower than normal.

3rd Position on a Bb

A B-flat harp gives you C minor, when you play in 3rd position. This is probably the easiest, once you’re used to it, especially the middle octave:

-4 -5 6 -6 7 -8

No bends required! The opening breath pattern (Draw Draw Blow Draw) is similar to cross harp, just starting on 4 draw instead of 2 draw. And you can bend on 6 draw for a flat-5 sound.

4th position on an Eb

Similar to straight harp (1st position), but with the root on -3″. Since your low root is a bent note, you have to learn to land there with confidence. Work on landing directly on your bent notes, rather than sliding every time.

-3″ 4 -4 5 6 -6

In the low octave, you won’t have a flat-5th unless you can overblow on hole 4, so when you also consider that Eb is also kind of a high-pitched harp, it’s not my first choice for bluesy sounds. For simply playing dark, minor sounds along the Do-Re-Mi seven-note scale, though, I’m all for it! Here’s the 4th position minor scale (7 notes):

-3″ -3 4 -4 5 -5 6

6th Position on a Db Harp

Just to be complete, let’s not forget that a D-flat harp will give you C minor if you play in 6th position. And the minor pentatonic scale is super easy using the middle octave in 6th position, no bends required. That is, as long as you don’t mind having a flat-5th ALL the time. Here it is…

-3 -4 5 -5 -6 -7

If you step carefully, it’s a really easy, dark, bluesy pathway. However, it’s easy to make unintentional international sounds by accidentally playing 4 or 7 blow and getting a flat 2 sound. That move gives you a flamenco, Arabic, klezmer-type sound, which is probably not stylistically appropriate, even if you have a fearless, boundary-crossing musical outlook.

Actually, I suppose 5th position holds a similar peril around the 5 draw. So whichever way you go, remember to practice the scale, learn your pathway, and be patient with yourself. Try not to jump out of your skin and become totally mortified when you hit weird notes. Everybody plays weird notes sometimes. Find your way back to the root and minor 3rd and hang there as needed.


If I were playing C minor with a band on “Rolling in the Deep,” I’d probably use an Ab harmonica in 5th position, or a Bb harp in 3rd position. Since I overblow, both those positions give me the option of a 7-note diatonic mode or a 5-note pentatonic scale. But even if you don’t overblow yet, 5th position gives you minor pentatonic using only standard technique and 3rd position works without any bends at all!


This advice assumes you’re playing fills and pure improv, not the song melody itself. The song melody uses the Aeolian minor, which is a minor with a flat 6th scale degree. It’s nice sometimes to follow the lead singer with the actual melody, so if you want that option, you gotta use 5th position in the low octave, or 4th position anywhere you like. 3rd position middle octave doesn’t have a flat-6th, unless you play an overblow on 6 blow, or transpose those phrases down an octave.